The Simla Agreement

Given the situation that required an agreement between the Indian and Pakistani leaders, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Pakistani president was invited to a summit in Simla during the last week of June 1972. The summit was to lead to a peace treaty that was to lead to the withdrawal of troops and the return of prisoners of war after the 1971 war. The summit conference between Bhutto and Indra Gandhi opened in Simla on the agreed date. The summit conference was held from June 28 to July 2, 1972. The objective of the agreement was to define the measures envisaged to normalize bilateral relations and to resolve mutual disputes through peaceful means and bilateral negotiations. India wanted to solve all the problems in one package, so it proposed a treaty of friendship that required the two countries to refrain from the use of force in dispute resolution, not to interfere in each other`s internal affairs, not to participate in the settlement of their disputes and to renounce military alliances directed against each other. Pakistan wanted to focus on issues as immediate as the release of prisoners of war, the withdrawal of troops and the resumption of diplomatic relations. It rejected the Indian proposal on the grounds that it would imply a lasting adoption of the partition of Kashmir and the withdrawal of the UN Kashmir dispute. The agreement did not prevent relations between the two countries from deteriorating until the armed conflict, the last time during the 1999 Kargil war.

In Operation Meghdoot of 1984, India seized the entire inhospitable region of the Siachens Glacier, where the border was clearly not defined in the agreement (perhaps because the area was considered too arid to be controversial); This was considered by Pakistan to be a violation of the Simla agreement. Most of the subsequent deaths in the Siachen conflict were caused by natural disasters. B, like the avalanches of 2010, 2012 and 2016. While Kashmir spoke only of «maintaining the line of control,» a clause was added to India`s insistence that the two countries would settle their differences only through «peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or other peaceful mutually agreed means,» Guha writes. This theoretically excludes third-party mediation in Kashmir. In 2001, then-Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf visited India on 14 and 16 July for a historic two-day summit in Agra at the invitation of Prime Minister Vajpayeee. However, the talks failed and no text of agreement could be found. According to historian Ramachandra Guha, India wanted a «comprehensive treaty to solve all outstanding problems,» while Pakistan preferred a «piecemeal approach.» Although India wanted a treaty, it reached an agreement because of the bitter negotiations of the Pakistanis. On July 2, 1972, the two countries reached an agreement. The main clauses of the Simla agreement are the main ones: this agreement is the result of the determination of the two countries to «end the conflict and confrontation that have so far affected their relations». He designed the steps to be taken to further normalize mutual relations and also defined the principles that should govern their future relations.

[4] [5] In 2003, Musharraf called for a ceasefire during the LoC. India accepted its proposal and put into effect on 25 November a ceasefire agreement, the first formal ceasefire since the start of the insurgency in Kashmir. The Simla agreement reads as a communiqué rather than a peace agreement with a country that had waged war on India.

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